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Anwar Bolshakov
Anwar Bolshakov

Aircrack-ng: The Complete Guide to WEP and WPA Wireless Cracking



Complete Tools For WEP and WPA Wireless Cracking




Wireless networks are everywhere, but not all of them are secure. Some use weak encryption protocols such as WEP or WPA, which can be easily cracked by hackers. In this article, we will introduce some of the most popular and effective tools for wireless password cracking and network penetration testing. These tools can help you assess the security of your own Wi-Fi network or gain unauthorized access to other networks.




Complete Tools For WEP and WPA Wireless Cracking


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What is WEP and WPA?




WEP and WPA are two of the main security protocols used in Wi-Fi networks. WEP stands for Wired Equivalent Privacy, and it was introduced in 1997 as part of the original 802.11 standards. However, it was soon found to have several serious weaknesses, such as weak encryption keys, predictable initialization vectors, and vulnerable authentication methods. As a result, WEP can be cracked within minutes using tools such as Aircrack-ng.


WPA stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access, and it was introduced in 2003 as a replacement for WEP. WPA improved the encryption and authentication methods of WEP, using stronger keys, dynamic initialization vectors, and Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP). However, WPA also had some flaws, such as using a common passphrase for all clients, which could be cracked by dictionary attacks. WPA was later upgraded to WPA2, which used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) instead of TKIP.


WPA3 is the latest version of Wi-Fi security protocol, which was certified in 2018. It is designed to provide more robust protection against offline dictionary attacks and key reinstallation attacks (KRACK). It also supports Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE), which replaces the pre-shared key method with a more secure handshake.


What are the tools for wireless password cracking?




Wireless password cracking tools are software applications that can exploit the vulnerabilities of WEP or WPA protocols and recover the network password. Some of these tools are:


  • Aircrack-ng: Aircrack-ng is one of the most popular and comprehensive tools for wireless password cracking and network security assessment. It consists of a suite of tools that can perform various tasks such as packet capture, packet injection, replay attacks, deauthentication attacks, fake access points, and cracking of WEP and WPA passwords. Aircrack-ng works on Linux, Windows, macOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Solaris, and eComStation 2.



  • Fern Wifi Wireless Cracker: Fern Wifi Wireless Cracker is a graphical user interface (GUI) tool that can crack WEP/WPA/WPA2 passwords on Wi-Fi networks. It uses Aircrack-ng as its backend engine and supports various attacks such as exploitation of vulnerable protocols, phishing attacks, brute-force and dictionary-based password guessing attacks. Fern Wifi Wireless Cracker works on Linux.



  • Wifite: Wifite is a Python script that automates the process of wireless password cracking. It can scan for available networks, select the best targets, launch various attacks such as deauthentication, fake authentication, ARP replay, fragmentation attack, chop-chop attack, Hirte attack, PTW attack, etc., and crack WEP/WPA/WPA2 passwords using Aircrack-ng or other tools such as Tshark or Cowpatty. Wifite works on Linux.



Kismet: Kismet is a wireless network sniffer and analyzer that can detect hidden networks, capture packets, identify network devices and clients, detect intrusions and rogue access points, etc. Kismet can also crack WEP passwords using statistical techniques or by integrating with other tools such as Aircrack-ng or Airdecap-ng. Kismet works on Linux, Windows,


  • macOS.



How to use these tools?




To use these tools for wireless password cracking, you need to have a compatible wireless card that supports monitor mode and packet injection. Monitor mode allows you to capture all the traffic on a wireless channel without being associated with any network. Packet injection allows you to send custom packets to manipulate or attack the network.


You also need to have some basic knowledge of wireless networking concepts such as channels,


frequencies,


SSID,


BSSID,


MAC address,


IV,


TKIP,


AES,


etc.


The general steps for wireless password cracking are:


  • Select a target network that uses WEP or WPA encryption.



  • Put your wireless card in monitor mode and start capturing packets on the target channel.



  • If the network uses WEP encryption, wait until you capture enough IVs (initialization vectors) to launch an attack using Aircrack-ng or other tools. Alternatively, you can speed up the process by injecting packets to generate more IVs or by performing active attacks such as ARP replay or chop-chop.



  • If the network uses WPA encryption, wait until you capture a handshake between a client and an access point. A handshake is a four-way exchange of cryptographic keys that occurs when a client connects to a network. Alternatively, you can force a handshake by deauthenticating an existing client or creating a fake access point.



  • Once you have captured enough data (IVs or handshake), use Aircrack-ng or other tools to crack the password by brute-force or dictionary attack methods.



Conclusion




In this article, we have introduced some of the complete tools for WEP and WPA wireless cracking that can help you test the security of your own Wi-Fi network or hack into other networks. These tools are powerful but also dangerous if used maliciously or illegally. Therefore,


we advise you to use them only for educational or ethical purposes and with proper authorization from the network owners.


How to protect your Wi-Fi network from wireless password cracking?




Wireless password cracking tools can pose a serious threat to your Wi-Fi network security and privacy. Hackers can use these tools to access your network, steal your data, monitor your online activity, launch attacks on other devices, etc. Therefore, it is important to take some preventive measures to protect your Wi-Fi network from wireless password cracking. Some of these measures are:


  • Use a strong encryption protocol: Avoid using WEP encryption, which is outdated and easily cracked. Use WPA2 or WPA3 encryption, which are more secure and resistant to brute-force attacks. Make sure your router and devices support the latest encryption protocol and update them regularly.



  • Use a strong password: Choose a long and complex password for your Wi-Fi network that is hard to guess or crack. Avoid using common words, names, dates, or personal information that can be found online or in dictionaries. Use a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Change your password periodically and do not share it with anyone.



  • Disable WPS: WPS stands for Wi-Fi Protected Setup, and it is a feature that allows you to connect devices to your Wi-Fi network by pressing a button or entering a PIN code. However, WPS can also be exploited by hackers to crack your Wi-Fi password using tools such as Reaver or Bully. Therefore, it is recommended to disable WPS on your router and use manual configuration instead.



  • Enable MAC filtering: MAC filtering is a feature that allows you to restrict access to your Wi-Fi network based on the MAC address of the devices. A MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to each device that connects to a network. By enabling MAC filtering, you can create a whitelist of trusted devices that are allowed to join your network and block any unauthorized devices.



What are the ethical and legal implications of wireless password cracking?




Wireless password cracking tools can be used for various purposes, such as testing the security of your own Wi-Fi network, performing penetration testing for clients, conducting research or education, etc. However, they can also be used for malicious or illegal purposes, such as hacking into other people's networks, stealing their data, launching attacks on their devices, etc.


Therefore, it is important to use these tools ethically and responsibly, and only with proper authorization from the network owners. Using these tools without permission or for harmful purposes can violate the privacy and security of others, as well as the laws and regulations of your country or region. You may face legal consequences such as fines, lawsuits, or even imprisonment if you are caught using these tools unlawfully.


Before using these tools, you should always check the ethical and legal guidelines of your profession, organization, or institution. You should also respect the rights and interests of others and avoid causing any damage or harm to them or their networks.


What are the benefits and challenges of wireless password cracking?




Wireless password cracking can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on how and why it is used. Some of the benefits of wireless password cracking are:


  • Improving Wi-Fi security: Wireless password cracking can help you test the security of your own Wi-Fi network and identify any weaknesses or vulnerabilities that need to be fixed. You can also use it to perform penetration testing for clients or organizations that want to improve their Wi-Fi security and prevent unauthorized access.



  • Learning and education: Wireless password cracking can help you learn more about wireless networking concepts, protocols, encryption methods, etc. You can also use it to teach others about Wi-Fi security and hacking techniques, or to participate in competitions or challenges that test your skills and knowledge.



  • Research and innovation: Wireless password cracking can help you discover new vulnerabilities or exploits in Wi-Fi protocols or devices, or develop new tools or methods for wireless hacking. You can also use it to contribute to the advancement of wireless security research and innovation.



Some of the challenges of wireless password cracking are:


  • Technical difficulties: Wireless password cracking can be a complex and time-consuming process that requires a lot of technical skills and knowledge. You need to have a compatible wireless card, a suitable operating system, various tools and software, etc. You also need to deal with various factors that can affect the success of your attack, such as signal strength, interference, encryption strength, network configuration, etc.



  • Ethical and legal issues: Wireless password cracking can raise ethical and legal questions, especially if you use it for malicious or illegal purposes. You may violate the privacy and security of others, or break the laws and regulations of your country or region. You may also face legal consequences such as fines, lawsuits, or even imprisonment if you are caught using these tools unlawfully.



  • Social and moral dilemmas: Wireless password cracking can create social and moral dilemmas, especially if you use it for personal gain or harm others. You may face ethical conflicts between your personal values and professional obligations, or between your curiosity and responsibility. You may also face moral dilemmas between your freedom and security, or between your rights and duties.



What are some tips and best practices for wireless password cracking?




To use wireless password cracking tools effectively and responsibly, you should follow some tips and best practices such as:


  • Use them only for legitimate purposes: Use wireless password cracking tools only for ethical or educational purposes, such as testing your own Wi-Fi network security, performing penetration testing for clients or organizations with proper authorization, conducting research or education, etc. Do not use them for malicious or illegal purposes, such as hacking into other people's networks, stealing their data, launching attacks on their devices, etc.



  • Use them only on your own network or with permission: Use wireless password cracking tools only on your own Wi-Fi network or with permission from the network owners. Do not use them on public or private networks that you do not own or have authorization to access. Respect the rights and interests of others and avoid causing any damage or harm to them or their networks.



  • Use them carefully and wisely: Use wireless password cracking tools carefully and wisely, considering the technical difficulties and risks involved. Choose the right tools for your task, configure them properly, monitor their performance, etc. Do not use them recklessly or excessively, as they may affect the stability or functionality of your network or device.



Use them safely and securely: Use wireless password cracking tools safely and securely,


protecting yourself and your network from potential threats. Use a VPN or proxy to hide your identity and location,


encrypt your data and communications,


use antivirus or firewall software to prevent malware infections,


etc. Do not use them on untrusted networks or devices,


  • or download them from unverified sources.



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